Particular attention is paid to the fossil evidence for this history and to the principal models of evolution that have gained the most credence in the scientific community. See the article evolution for a full explanation of evolutionary theory, including its main proponents both before and after Darwin, its arousal of both resistance and acceptance in society, and the scientific tools used to investigate the theory and prove its validity. Background and beginnings in the Miocene It is generally agreed that the taproot of the human family shrub is to be found among apelike species of the Middle Miocene Epoch roughly 16— Genetic data based on molecular clock estimates support a Late Miocene ancestry. Various Eurasian and African Miocene primates have been advocated as possible ancestors to the early hominins , which came on the scene during the Pliocene Epoch 5.
54,049 Graduate School Programs
UX Certification & Training – Human Factors International
The "Design Flaw " Argument Oh, but what about the "design flaws" of the human eye? It is a common argument in favor of evolution that no intelligent designer would design anything with flaws. Evolution on the other hand, being a naturalistic process of trial and error, easily explains the existence of flaws in the natural world. Although many are convinced by this argument, this argument in and of itself assumes the motives and capabilities of the designer.
Evolution Before about it was widely thought that distinctively hominin fossils could be identified from 14 to 12 million years ago mya. However, during the s geneticists introduced the use of molecular clocks to calculate how long species had been separated from a common ancestor. The molecular clock concept is based on an assumed regularity in the accumulation of tiny changes in the genetic codes of humans and other organisms. Use of this concept, together with a reanalysis of the fossil record , moved the estimated time of the evolutionary split between apes and human ancestors forward to as recently as about 5 mya.
Australopithecus africanus -- The word "Australopithecus" means "southern ape. Raymond Dart, professor of anatomy at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, was the first to study these fossils. In at Taung in South Africa, Dart discovered a fossil skull consisting of a full face, teeth and jaws, and an endocranial cast of the brain. The brain size was cc.