Map of the Eastern Mediterranean in The remnant of the Byzantine Empire is visible in the west; the nascent Seljuq Empire and Fatimid Egypt are shown in green. Map of crusades to Eastern Mediterranean and Tunisia The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula and had united much of Arabia into a single polity by his death in Arab power expanded rapidly in the 7th and 8th centuries largely by military conquest. Jerusalem was taken from the Byzantine Empire after a siege in Pilgrimages by Catholics to sacred sites were permitted, Christian residents in Muslim territories were given Dhimmi status, legal rights, and legal protection.
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Early episcopal consecrations without papal approval[ edit ] Dominique Marie Varlet, Catholic Bishop of Babylon Beginning in , Dominique Marie Varlet , the Catholic Bishop of Babylon , consecrated four successive men as Archbishop of Utrecht without papal approval. The Cathedral Chapter of Utrecht, which elected these men, had previously obtained an opinion from Zeger Bernhard van Espen and two other doctors professors of canon law at the University of Louvain , which noted that the chapter had the right, in special circumstances, to elect its own archbishop and have him consecrated without the consent of the pope , and that, in the case of necessity, one bishop alone might validly consecrate another. Nineteen doctors of the theological faculties at Paris , Nantes , Rheims and Padua approved of this opinion. This caused a theological controversy and schism within the Catholic Church , which now possessed bishops who were validly consecrated without the permission of the pope. This schism marked the birth of the movement that would later be known as the Old Catholic Church a term coined in for the Catholics of Utrecht , and it marked the beginning of an era in the western Church , in which validly-consecrated bishops enjoyed apostolic succession but were not subject to the structures and strictures of the Catholic Church.
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